How Brand Experience Impacts Brand Love: A research on mobile phones

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In this post, I have published my research on Brand Experience. I had to modify the research as per this website. I hope my reader will learn from this study. I may not publish the figures but I’ll definitely write the results and recommendations.

Abstract

This research aims to find how brand love can be developed, as in recent times; companies have been working to create a love for their brands. The purpose of this research is to study brand love as possible outcomes of brand experiences and find Variables that mediate between brand experience and Brand Love for the making marketing strategy.

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The data was gathered using questionnaires and was analyzed using multiple mediation techniques. This research indicates that the relationship between brand experience and brand love is mediated by variables namely Brand Image, Brand Awareness, and Perceived Quality. The study shows that these variables act as perfect mediators when they work together, but they act as partial mediators alone.

This research was conducted in Pakistan. It would be more robust if the model, proposed in this study, is also tested in other countries.

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This study will help managers formulate strategies to create emotions of love with their company’s brands, and then position them accordingly and improve customer engagement.

INTRODUCTION

The world experienced a technological revolution during the past three decades, Mankind is living in the digital era now. It is an era in which people are as closer to each other as they are farther. A person in a small to­­wn in Pakistan can call his or her friend living in, say, Alaska anytime (s)he does so using a device (s)he may carry in or her purse or in his pocket.

The device called a mobile phone or cell phone has taken the world like a storm. Every individual is connected with others living miles away from him/her. Some years earlier, only a few people (the rich) could afford to have a mobile phone set. But, now with the advent of affordable sets, even a common person in an under-developed country can afford to have one. It has transformed our lives in a way that couldn’t have been predicted a few decades ago.

In 2014, eMarketer – a New York-based online marketing research firm – expected 4.55 billion people to use a cell phone worldwide in the next five years.

A few years earlier, it was the time when only camera-less phones with monochrome display screens were available in markets. Now in 2019, phones have transformed into ‘smartphones’:

Phones in operation these days offer millions of colors and they have a camera resolution of 23 Megapixel (MP). Not only this, we have phones which offer fingerprint recognition technology built into them.

Future phones are being touted as the ultimate multifunctional gadgets and are expected to be more closely embedded in our lives than ever before.

Which mobile phone brand offers a lasting experience?

  • 100% Samsung
  • 0% Nokia
  • 0% iPhone
  • 0% Huawei
  • 0% Xiaomi
  • 0% QMobile

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smartphone

USES OF MOBILE PHONES TODAY

Now in 2019, mobile phones have penetrated our lives. They are capable of doing much more than simply calling and texting, they have started to replace other devices like cameras and desktop computers.

HISTORY OF MOBILE PHONES

The origin of mobile phones goes back to 1908 when a US Patent was issued in Kentucky for a wireless telephone.

The modern mobile phones emerged in the 1940s when engineers working at AT&T developed cells for mobile phone base stations. The very first mobile phones were two-way radios that allowed people like emergency services to communicate.

The first mobile phone network involved one very powerful base station covering a much wider area. This is one of the reasons they were called 0G or Zero Generation mobile phones. Most phones today are 4G Fourth Generation phone. It is only a matter of a few years that we see Fifth Generation (5G) phones available for sale.

The development of mobile phone technology

A Motorola employee called Martin Cooper is widely considered to be a key player in the history of mobile phones, inventing the first mobile phone fit for practical use. Cooper’s phone was the first usable truly portable mobile telephone. He made the first call from that device in a historic day of April 1973. The first country to have a city-wide commercial cellular mobile phone network in 1979 was Japan.

In the 1990s, it was impossible to find a camera or even a color image on a mobile phone. Those devices have undergone a technological revolution in the 21st century. The camera became a reality in the late 1990s.

  • Mobile phones in 2019 are equipped with
  • a 23 MegaPixel camera,
  • fingerprint recognition,
  • 4K Displays and are as thin as a lead in a pencil.

Woman using smartphone | Source

USES TODAY

Now in 2019, mobile phones have penetrated our lives. They are capable of doing much more than simply calling and texting, they have started to replace other devices like cameras and desktop computers.

social media icons

Professionals and businessmen who include students at all levels, doctors, engineers, serviceman, and common man and woman use a mobile phone in their day-to-day activities to stay connected, organized and entertained.

Those having an artist in them – more than 82% of cell phone users – take pictures with their mobile devices (Banda, 2012). People also search for health information via mobile phones.

MOBILE PHONES IN PAKISTAN

In 1998-99, SIM-enabled handsets were introduced by Nokia – a Finland-based multi-national mobile-phone manufacturer (Aijaz, 2008). Since then, more than one & a half dozen brands have been made available for usage in the market.

In Pakistan, the telecom sector is a related sector of the mobile-phone industry. The sector is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the country. The Pakistan Economic Survey (PES) for the fiscal year (FY) 2013-14, recorded a 92 percent increase in the network coverage. (PES, 2014)

The sector has taken a giant step towards progress after the awarding of 3G/4G licenses on May 22, 2014(PES, 2014, p. 205). Now in 2015, the sector planning another step forward toward 5G.

All add up to the growth of demand for supporting handsets. The mobile-phone industry in Pakistan is growing with every coming year.

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MOBILE-PHONE BRANDS IN PAKISTAN

According to the website,whatmobile.com.pk,consumers can purchase any of the 23 brands. I’m naming a few popular brands Including

  • Nokia,
  • Samsung Mobile,
  • Sony,
  • QMobile,
  • Huawei Mobile,

OVERVIEW OF THE TOPIC

In 1998, B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore introduced a new perspective of looking at the economy, the experience perspective. The authors urged companies to provide experiences that reside in the minds of consumers in their long-term memory. They concluded that it was because of those memorable experiences that the consumers return.

The concept of experience captured attentions from academicians (e.g. Schmitt, 1999, 2003; Otto & Ritchie, 1996; Hulten, 2011; Hoeffler & Ariely, 1999; Alloza, 2008). In 2009, Brakas, Zorentonello and Schmitt operationalized the construct in the context of a brand as well as developed a measurement scale for it, an effort that gained popularity among researchers. As proof, their research has been cited more than 1000 times since then.

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION & RESEARCH GAP

Since the BE construct has been operationalized in 2009, it has been extensively researched. Researchers studied Brand Experience from two broad perspectives. Brand management (e.g. Valencia, 2005) and BE’s consequences (e.g. Shamim & Butt, 2013).

In recent years, a majority of researchers are interested in measuring the consequences of Brand Experience. The constructs that have been measured in this regard include brand differentiation, sale promotion, customer satisfaction, loyalty, brand credibility, purchase intention, and consumer-based brand equity.

The Gap: Since 2009, none of the relationship-based constructs have been studied as possible consequences of Brand Experience. This research fills that gap. A relationship-based construct, brand love, will be tested.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:

The concern of this research is to study the outcomes of brand experiences for marketing strategy making purposes. In recent times, companies have been working to develop love with their brands. This research finds how Brand Love can be developed as a result of BE.

  1. To discuss the role of a brand’s experience in invoking the feeling of love after experiencing it.
  2. To analyze the mediating role of Brand Awareness, Brand Image and Perceived Quality between brand experience and Brand Love.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In this article, I will attempt to answer the following questions:

  1. Does the experience of a brand induces the feeling of love for that brand
  2. Do Brand Image, brand awareness, and perceived quality mediates the relationship between brand experience and Brand Love.

Scope of this research

The study strictly limits within the geographical boundary of Pakistan and aims at understanding the consequences of brand experiences in the mobile phone industry of the country.

Pakistani consumers have different behaviors from those of the rest of the world, especially from those of the west. For this reason, we need to determine the outcomes of experiences in the context of Pakistan alone.

Humans share certain characteristics wherever they live, we can; therefore, generalize the findings.

If I conclude that A causes B in Pakistan, then it is also true for the USA

SIGNIFICANCE

This study has both academic and marketing significance.

Academic Significance:

The study will add to the present knowledge by introducing a new consequence of Brand Experience and provides an unambiguous way to develop Brand Love.

Marketing Significance:

The results of this research will be of practical importance to design a marketing strategy with the objective of establishing long-term relationships between the consumers and the brand.

This hub will identify the obstacles to the development of a love relationship with a brand. The findings will be important for the administration to take the necessary steps for developing a long-term and emotional relationship with consumers.

Research Model

research model

DEFINITIONS 

Dependent Variable (DV)

The DV is Brand Love:

Brand love:

Deep emotional attachment consumers have with a certain brand (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006; Roberts, 2004).

Independent Variable (IV)

The IV is brand experience:

Brand Experience:

Brakas et al. (2009) defined Brand Experience as “subjective, internal consumer responses (sensations, feelings, and cognitions) and behavioral responses evoked by brand-related stimuli that are part of a brand’s design and identity, packaging, communications,

Other Variables:

Brand Awareness:

An ability to identify, recognize or recall a brand in a certain category (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993).

Brand Image:

A consumer‘s perceptions and feelings towards a brand shaped by direct/indirect brand experiences, which capture cognitive, sensory, and emotional aspects. (Keller, 2001; Roberts, 2004, 2006).

Perceived Quality:

The consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority

HYPOTHESES

Brand experience and Perceived Quality:

Research indicates a significant effect on quality perception after a consumer’s experience with a product (Tse & Gorn, 1993).

Brand Experience and Brand Awareness:

Brand Experience can be both direct and indirect. The experience is indirect when the brand is presented virtually as in an advertisement (Brakas et al., 2009). An advertisement is the most effective and powerful method to build awareness (Ragavendran, 2009).

Brand Experience and Brand Image:

Keller (2001) & Roberts (2004) have shown that direct and indirect experiences with a brand have a positive effect on that brand’s image. It is because of the image that the consumer returns to relive that experience (Pine & Gilmore, 1998).

Perceived quality and Bra٣٣nd Love

The perceived quality evokes the feeling of trust in a customer. Trust and high-quality is the antecedents of brand love (Albert & Merunka, 2013; Batra et al., 2012).

Brand Image and Brand Love

The brand image captures cognitive, affective, and sensory associations consumers have with a brand. Marketing research has shown that a positive brand image augments both cognitive and emotional brand experiences, such as brand trust, attachment, engagement, sense of community, and loyalty (Broyles et al., 2009; Esch et al., 2006). For instance, consumers may come to love the retailer Hot Topic, suppose any apparel brand, because they have a positive brand image due to experiencing it, inspiring with the store environment, and, because of attending any sponsored event.

Brand Awareness and Brand Love

Mehrabian & Russell (1974) proposed that consumers tend to approach situations they like and avoid those that they don‘t like. Based on their approach it can be concluded that consumers may spend more time exploring information about a brand they like. This may strengthen their effect towards and beliefs about that brand through selective perception. Consumers may selectively perceive information to reinforce their positive attitudes or beliefs (Blackwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2005). Brand awareness may be associated with positive affect (i.e., brand love).

I thus hypothesize that:

H1: Brand Image mediates between Brand Experience and Brand Love.

H2: Brand Awareness mediates between Brand Experience and Brand Love.

H3: Perceived Quality mediates between Brand Experience and Brand Love.

H4 brand Image, Brand Awareness, and Perceived Quality mediate between Brand Experience and Brand Love.

METHODOLOGY

The research follows the non-experimental causal design and a quantitative approach, it means a formal, objective, and

Sampling Unit:

A mobile phone use within the geographical boundary of Pakistan.

Sampling Technique:

I adopted the non-probability sampling procedure. Because I had a limited budget and time for the study. I adopted a technique that was both economical and convenient. Therefore, I chose convenience sampling as the sampling procedure for this study.

Sample Design and Size:

In 1975, Krejcie & Morgan introduced a formula to calculate sample sizes for different population levels, at .05, .1, .01 and .001 confidence levels. Their formula for the known population is:

Size = [X2 NP (1 – P)[ْ /

[D2 (N – 1) + X2 P (1 – P)]

XTable value of Chi-Square @ d.f = 1 for desired confidence interval.

10 = 2.71, .05 = 3.84

N = population size

P = Population proportion (assumed to be .50)

d = degree of accuracy expressed as a proportion)

After computing using their formula, ironically, population sizes above 222,000 compute to 384 sample size.. The value is constant for population sizes up to 900,000,000. Hence, the sample size for this research is 384.

Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis is a ‘mobile-phone brand user.

Data Analysis Procedures:

To analyze data, multiple mediation analysis was performed based on the methodology prescribed by Preacher & Hayes (2008). CFA was also used to analyze the data.

Justification of Research Methodology

In their 2004 paper, Preacher & Hayes highlighted several shortcomings in the methodology proposed by Baron & Kenny (1986). In 2008, they proposed that multiple mediations should be tested simultaneously.

Data Collection Instrument

Questionnaires were used as the survey instrument. It consisted of two parts. The first part inputs the demographic information of respondents and asked the mobile phone brand in their use that period. The second part consisted of fifty-nine items designed on the eight constructs to test the proposed hypotheses adopted from several influential authors in their respective fields.

The variables tested were Brand Experience (Independent Variable), Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Perceived Quality, &Brand Love.

the systematic process was utilized where data was used to test the hypotheses without any experiment.

CONSTRUCT

Authors

Items

Year

Perceived Quality

Yoo and Danthu

2

2002

Brand Experience

Brakas, Zorentonello and Schmitt

12

2009

Brand Awareness

Keller, Aaker & Yoo and Danthu

7 (3, 2, 2)

2001, 1996, 2002

Brand Image

Yoo and Danthu

3

2002

Brand Love

Yoo and Danthu

13

2014

All the items, except those of BE and BLv were computed on a five-point Likert scale. The items of BE and BLv were measured on a seven-point Likert scale. One item of BLv was measured on a ten-point scale.

Hypotheses Table

hypotheses table

CONCLUSION

DISCUSSION

Ever since the operationalization of Brand Experience in 2009,, the construct has captured the interest of researchers and academicians. The same is true for brand love which emerged in the late 1980s.

Keeping in view the need and importance of the two concepts and the fact that companies are trying to provide memorable experiences and to create love with their brands, this research shows the existence of possible variables forming the relationship between BE and Brand Love.

The results are supported by previous researches by Tse & Gorn (1993), Brakas et al. (2009), Broyles et al. (2009), Esch et al. (2006) and Ragavendran (2009) which show evidence of effects on BAW, BI and on perceived quality about a brand as result of brand experience and their leading to brand love.

The research shows that individually Brand Image, Brand awareness and Perceived Quality act as partial mediators but together they perfectly mediate between Brand Experience and Brand Love. It is important for companies to create a better image of their brands if they want their customers to love their brands.

CONCLUSION

The study focused to answer two questions: Does the experience of a brand induces the feeling of love for that brand? Do brand Image, brand awareness, and perceived quality mediate the relationship between brand experience and Brand Love? Both questions were addressed.

The relationship between Brand Experience and Brand Love is mediated by multiple mediators: Brand Image, Brand Awareness, and Perceived Quality. Individually Brand Image was found to have the most significant effect among the three mediators, then Brand Awareness and Perceived Quality had the least effect on the relationship. However, when the three were collectively tested, they accounted for three-forth of the total effect.

It is important that companies create a favorable image; increase awareness about their brands and work on enhancing quality perceptions about their brands in consumers’ minds all at the same time.

The results prove that individually the three – Brand Awareness, Brand Image, and Perceived Quality – have partial effects on the Brand Experience-Brand Love relationship. However, the three variables have a significant effect on it.

Working on any of the three concepts will induce a feeling of love in consumers but it will not be enough, and the room will be left for more. Working on them simultaneously will be much more effective.

RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of the result it is recommended:

  • A favorable and memorable experience should be created which ends in creating loving feelings.
  • Companies should work in enhancing their brands’ image, awareness and quality perceptions all at the same time. Focusing on only one will leave a room, and it will be difficult to reach the desired marketing objectives.
  • Efforts need to be focused on both extrinsic and intrinsic cues of brand experience.
  • As advertisements are indirect experiences, Companies should work on their advertisements. They are not only methods of communication of marketing messages, but also help create and enhance Brand Image.

LIMITATIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

The study is conducted in the specific context of Pakistan. The results show the behavior of the Pakistani people. Also, only a product (mobile-phone) is tested.

Advertisements play an important role in creating, and developing brands Image and Brand Awareness but Brand Love is not something that can be created with them alone. It requires an all-round effort to create a better image of the brand, create awareness, enhance its quality and thus quality’s perception through effective advertisements providing superior quality products and products which can provide timely solutions to consumers’ problems.

This research shows a way to create love with brands. This is useful especially for companies that want to position their brands as loved brands. Also, for those wishing a romantic relationship for their customers..And also for those companies which wish to provide long-lasting and memorable experiences to their consumers.

FUTURE RESEARCH

The study is limited to products; future researchers can test the model for service brands. Moreover, in the model, researchers can test which dimension of brand experience is more responsible for creating love with the brand.

In one para we can conclude that:

Brand Experience results in Brand Love under the pretense of

  • Brand Awareness – the person has proper awareness and knowledge about it
  • The good image of that brand, and
  • The person ‘thinks’ that the brand offers good quality.

If you have any question or if you want to add anything, then you are welcome to ask below

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